lunes, 25 de febrero de 2013

Poesía Británica del Siglo XVII

(Página en construcción)

Los poetas del siglo XVII en el Reino Unido eran un grupo elitista que compartían códigos culturales, conocían a los clásicos, convenciones literarias así como la situación y personalidades políticas, de tal modo podían satirizar o mencionar con enrevesados recursos y el mensaje era entendido por todos. Uno de estas fuentes que compartían eran los LIBROS DE EMBLEMAS, en los que mediante ilustraciones y texto se representaban mensajes moralizantes. 

The Chavalier Poets

His Prayer to Ben Jonson

When I a verse shall make,
Know I have pray'd thee,
For old religion's sake,
Saint Ben to aid me.

Make the way smooth for me,
When I, thy Herrick,
Honouring thee, on my knee
Offer my lyric.

Candles I'll give to thee,
And a new altar,
And thou, Saint Ben, shalt be
Writ in my psalter.

Cuando cree un poema,
te invocaré a ti,
en nombre de mis más hondas creencias, 
San Ben ayúdame.
Haz mi sendero suave,
Cuando yo, tu Herrick,
Te honre, de rodillas,
bendíceme con tu poesía.

Te llevaré velas, 
te haré un altar,
y tú, San Ben, serás
alabado en mis salmos. 

Delight In Disorder by Robert Herrick

A sweet disorder in the dress 
Kindles in clothes a wantonness: 

lawn1about the shoulders thrown 

Into a fine distraction: 

An erring lace which here and there 

Enthrals the crimson stomacher:2 
A cuff neglectful, and thereby 
Ribbons to flow confusedly: 
A winning wave (deserving note) 
In the tempestuous petticoat: 
A careless shoe-string, in whose tie 
I see a wild civility: 
Do more bewitch me than when art 
Is too precise in every part.

Un dulce desorden en el vestido
enciende un capricho en las prendas:

un pañuelo sobre los hombros soltado

en delicada distracción;

un lazo inquieto, que aquí y allí

cautiva el ceñidor carmesí;
un puño negligente, y por él
cintas que fluyen confusamente;
una atractiva ondulación, digna de atención,
en las tempestuosas enaguas;
un cordón descuidado en el zapato, en cuyo lazo
veo una humanidad salvaje:
me cautivan más que cuando el arte
es demasiado preciso en cada parte.

1...lawn: Sheer cotton or linen fabric used in clothing.
2...stomacher (STUM uh ker): Stiff cloth, often adorned with jewels or embroidery, that covers the chest and abdomen of women or men.

.......The tone is light and playful. 
Technique as Reflection of Content
.......Robert Herrick formatted “Delight in Disorder” to reflect its content—that is, he deliberately inserted technical imperfections in order to create “sweet disorder” (line 1). Notice, for example, that the end rhyme is inconsistent. Lines 1 and 2 end with corresponding sounds, as do lines 9 and 10 and lines 13 and 14. But the other pairs of lines contain only approximate rhymes that require the reader to alter the traditional pronunciation to maintain the rhyme scheme. (See End Rhyme, below, for further information.) Notice also that the metric pattern varies in lines 2 and 8. (See Meter, below.)
End Rhyme
.......The poem consists of seven couplets. (A couplet is a pair of rhyming lines.) However, the rhyme scheme requires the reader to alter the pronunciation of the final syllable of some words. Here is the poem with the rhyming syllables highlighted.
A sweet disorder in the dress Kindles in clothes a wantonness: A lawn about the shoulders thrown Into a fine distraction:............................................. (Pronounce the o in distraction long, as in lone, to rhyme with the o inthrown) An erring lace which here and there Enthrals the crimson stomacher:..............................(Pronounce the er in stomacher like the er in there) A cuff neglectful, and thereby Ribbons to flow confusedly:...................................... (Pronounce the y in confusedly like the y in thereby) A winning wave (deserving note) In the tempestuous petticoat: A careless shoe-string, in whose tie I see a wild civility:...................................................(Pronounce the y in civility like the ie in tie) Do more bewitch me than when art Is too precise in every part.Internal Rhyme
.......Herrick also uses internal rhyme in the poem. In the following lines, the rhyming vowels are highlighted.
Kindles in clothes a wantonness (line 2) Enthrals the crimson stomacher: (line 6) Ribbons to flow confusedly: (line 8) In the tempestuous petticoat: (line 10) A careless shoe-string, in whose tie (line 11) I see a wild civility (line 12)Meter
.......Herrick wrote the poem mainly in iambic tetrameter. A line of iambic tetrameter has eight syllables, or four feet. An iambic foot, or iamb, consists of an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable. The first line of the poem demonstrates the pattern.
......1...............2.............3...............4...... SWEET..|..dis OR..|.. der IN..|..the DRESS.......However, although lines 2 and 8 follow the tetrameter pattern, they veer from the iambic pattern. Here is why: Each of these lines opens with a stressed syllable followed by an unstressed syllable. (A stressed syllable followed by an unstressed syllable constitutes atrochee.)...................1...................2.................3..............4 Line 2...KIN dles..| CLOTHES..|..WAN,..|..ton ESS.. ...................1..................2..............3.............4 Line 8:...RIB bons..| FLOW..|..con FU..|..sed LYNote that the first foot of line 1 (a SWEET) is an iamb. On the other hand, the first foot of line 2 (KIN dles) is a trochee, as is the first foot (RIB bons) of line 8. For a complete explanation of metric formats, click here.
Structural Balance
.......Herrick achieves a pleasing structural balance in the poem by doing the following:
  • Presenting the lines in seven couplets, for a total of fourteen lines.
  • Giving each line eight syllables. (See Technique, above, for slight inconsistencies in this format.)
  • Using parallel structure at the beginning of lines 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11. Each of these lines begins with a definite article followed by a noun or an adjective-noun combination: a lawnan erring lacea cuff neglectfula winning wave, and a careless shoestring.
  • Writing opening and closing couplets with exactly rhyming final syllables: -ess (lines 1 and 2) and art and -art (lines 13 and 14).
Figures of Speech
.......Following are examples of figures of speech in the poem. (For definitions of figures of speech, click here.)
disorder in the dress (line 1) Kindles in clothes (line 2) crimson stomacher (line 6) winning wave (line 9) Do more bewitch me (line 13) precise in every part (line 14)Metaphortempestuous petticoat (line 10) Comparison of the petticoat to a storm (tempest), perhaps because it blows in the windParadoxwild civility (line 12)Study Questions and Writing Topics
1. Do you like the poem? Explain why or why not.
2. Herrick uses inversion in three lines to impart a pleasing poetic ring to the poem. Line 3, for example, says, A lawn about the shoulders thrown (instead of A lawn thrown about the shoulders). Line 7 begins with A cuff neglectful (instead of A neglectful cuff). What is the other line containing inversion?
3. Herrick begins the poem with a sentence (lines 1 and 2) that establishes the theme. He then presents details to support the theme. Write a poem of your own that imitates this format.

"To Virgins, to Make Much of Time" by Robert Herrick

Gather ye rosebuds while ye may, 

Old Time is still a-flying:
And this same flower that smiles to-day 
To-morrow will be dying.

The glorious lamp of heaven, the sun, 
The higher he's a-getting,
The sooner will his race be run, 
And nearer he's to setting.

That age is best which is the first, 
When youth and blood are warmer;
But being spent, the worse, and worst 
Times still succeed the former.

Then be not coy, but use your time, 
And while ye may, go marry:
For having lost but once your prime, 
You may for ever tarry.

A las vírgenes, para que aprovechen el tiempo

Reunid capullos de rosas mientras podáis,
el viejo Tiempo siempre vuela:
y esta misma flor que sonríe hoy
mañana estará muriendo.

La gloriosa lámpara del cielo, el sol,
cuanta más altura alcanza,
antes habrá recorrido su camino
y más cerca estará del ocaso.

La mejor edad es la primera,
cuando la juventud y la sangre están más calientes;
pero consumidas, la peor, y peores
tiempos siempre suceden a los anteriores.

Así pues no seáis reacias, sino aprovechad el tiempo,
y mientras podáis, casaos:
pues una vez perdida la primavera,
puede que esperéis para siempre.

"The Vine" by Robert Herrick

I dreamed this mortal part of mine
Was metamorphosed to a vine,
Which crawling one and every way
Enthralled my dainty Lucia.
Methought her long small legs and thighs
I with my tendrils did surprise;
Her belly, buttocks, and her waist
By my soft nervelets were embraced.
About her head I writhing hung,
And with rich clusters (hid among
The leaves) her temples I behung,
So that my Lucia seemed to me
Young Bacchus ravished by his tree.

My curls about her neck did crawl,
And arms and hands they did enthrall,
So that she could not freely stir
(All parts there made one prisoner).
But when I crept with leaves to hide
Those parts which maids keep unespied,
Such fleeting pleasures there I took
That with the fancy I awoke;
And found (ah me!) this flesh of mine
More like a stock than like a vine.

Soñé que esta parte efímera de mí
 se metamorfoseaba en una vid,
trepando por aquí y por allá
cautivando a la exquisita Lucía.
Me imaginaba recorriendo su pequeña pierna y su muslo
sorprendiendo con mis sarmientos.
Su vientre, nalgas, y su pecho
eran abrazadas por mis suaves ramas.
Yo retorcía un abrazo sobre su cabeza,
y con ricos racimos (ocultos entre 
las hojas) sus más valiosos atributos yo poseía,
Entonces mi Lucía me parecía
el joven Baco forzado por su árbol.
Mis rizos trepaban alrededor de su cuello,
y brazos y manos la cautivaban,
tanto que ella no se podía mover
(todas las partes habían hecho una prisionera).
Pero cuando yo trepé con mis hojas para llegar
a esas partes que las muchachas mantienen ocultas,
sentí tan efímero placer 
que con esa fantasía me desperté;
Y encontré (pobre de mí) mi piel
más como un cartón que como una vid.

Ben Jonson, To Celia


DRINK to me only with thine eyes, 
         And I will pledge with mine; 
Or leave a kiss but in the cup 
         And I'll not look for wine. 
The thirst that from the soul doth rise 
         Doth ask a drink divine; 
But might I of Jove's nectar sup, 
         I would not change for thine. 

I sent thee late a rosy wreath, 
         Not so much honouring thee 
As giving it a hope that there 
         It could not wither'd be; 
But thou thereon didst only breathe, 
         And sent'st it back to me; 
Since when it grows, and smells, I swear, 
         Not of itself but thee! 

A Celia

Bebe a mi salud solo con los ojos,
y yo brindaré con los míos;
o deja un beso sino en la copa
y no buscaré vino.
La sed que del alma surge
pide bebida divina;
pero aunque pudiera
del néctar de Júpiter sorber,
no lo cambiaría por el tuyo.

Te envié hace poco una corona de rosas,
no tanto honrándote
como dándole esperanza de que ahí
no pudiera marchitarse,
pero tú solo le respiraste encima
y me la devolviste; desde entonces lozanea y huele, lo juro,
¡no por sí sino por ti!

To John Donne

Donne, the delight of Phoebus and each Muse
Who, to thy one, all other brains refuse;
Whose every work of thy most early wit
Came forth example, and remains so yet;
Longer a-knowing than most wits do live;
And which no affection praise enough can give!
To it, thy language, letters, arts, best life,
Which might with half mankind maintain a strife.
All which I meant to praise, and yet I would;
But leave, because I cannot as I should!


The Metaphisic Poets

"To his Coy Mistress" by Andrew Marvell 

     The purpose is to persuade a virgin to have sexual intercourse with him

Had we but world enough, and time,
This coyness, lady, were no crime.
We would sit down and think which way
To walk, and pass our long love's day;
Thou by the Indian Ganges' side
Shouldst rubies find; I by the tide
Of Humber would complain. I would
Love you ten years before the Flood;
And you should, if you please, refuse
Till the conversion of the Jews.
My vegetable love should grow
Vaster than empires, and more slow.
An hundred years should go to praise
Thine eyes, and on thy forehead gaze;
Two hundred to adore each breast,
But thirty thousand to the rest;
An age at least to every part,
And the last age should show your heart.
For, lady, you deserve this state,
Nor would I love at lower rate.

        But at my back I always hear
Time's winged chariot hurrying near;
And yonder all before us lie
Deserts of vast eternity.
Thy beauty shall no more be found,
Nor, in thy marble vault, shall sound
My echoing song; then worms shall try
That long preserv'd virginity,
And your quaint honour turn to dust,
And into ashes all my lust.
The grave's a fine and private place,
But none I think do there embrace.

        Now therefore, while the youthful hue
Sits on thy skin like morning dew,
And while thy willing soul transpires
At every pore with instant fires,
Now let us sport us while we may;
And now, like am'rous birds of prey,
Rather at once our time devour,
Than languish in his slow-chapp'd power.
Let us roll all our strength, and all
Our sweetness, up into one ball;
And tear our pleasures with rough strife
Thorough the iron gates of life.
Thus, though we cannot make our sun
Stand still, yet we will make him run.

A su esquiva amada

De tener tiempo y mundo suficientes,
no sería delito tu recato.
Dónde ir pensaríamos, sentados,
y en pasar nuestro amor en largo día.
Tú, en las riberas índicas del Ganges
en busca de rubíes; yo, plañendo
en las ondas del Humber. Te amaría
desde diez años antes del Diluvio:
y rehusar podrías, si quisieseis,
hasta la conversión de los judíos.
Mi vegetal amor se extendería
más vasto que un imperio y más despacio.
Unos buenos cien años yo daría
para alabar tus ojos y tu frente,
doscientos adorando cada pecho:
y quizá treinta mil en cuanto resta.
Mil años, por lo menos, cada parte,
si al fin tu corazón se me mostrase.
Pues, Señora, mereces tal respeto;
y amarte no podría a menos precio.

Pero, detrás de mí, yo siempre escucho
la carroza del tiempo, inexorable:
y allende de nosotros se dilatan
desiertos de la vasta eternidad.
No tendrás todo el tiempo tu belleza,
ni habrá de resonar en tu sepulcro
el eco de mi canto: pues gusanos
probarán tu inmortal virginidad:
tu honor sin par se habrá tornado polvo;
muertas cenizas todo mi deseo.
La tumba es un lugar íntimo y bello,
pero creo que allí nadie se abraza.

Por eso, ahora, cuando un fresco tinte
vive en tu piel cual matinal rocío,
y mientras tu alma diáfana transpire
por cada poro fuegos instantáneos,
vámonos a gozar mientras podamos;
como amorosas aves de rapiña,
devoremos al punto nuestro tiempo,
en vez de perecer entre sus fauces.
Envolvamos, pues, todas nuestras fuerzas,
nuestra dulzura toda, en una esfera:
nuestros placeres, bastos, adentremos
por el portal de hierro de la vida.
Si parar no podemos nuestro sol,
al menos obliguémoslo a correr.

John Done

"A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning" by John Donne 

Prosodia: Pentámetros yámbicos subvertidos en ocasiones para resaltar la complicación conceptual de la comparación entre un compás y dos almas enamoradas.

As vir/tuous men/ pass mildly/ a way, (a)
   And whis/per to/ their souls /to go, (b)
Whilst some/ of their/ sad friends/ do say (a)
   The breath /goes now/, and some /say, No: (b)

So let/ us melt/, and make/ no noise, (c)
   No tear/-floods, nor/ sigh-tem/pests move/; (d)
'Twere pro/fana/tion of/ our joys (c)
   To tell/ the la/ity/ our love. (d)

Moving/ of th' earth/ brings harms /and fears, (e)
   Men rec/kon what/ it did,/ and meant; (f)
But tre/pida/tion of /the spheres, (e)
   Though grea/ter far,/ is in/nocent. (f)

Dull sublunary lovers' love
   (Whose soul is sense) cannot admit
Absence, because it doth remove
   Those things which elemented it.

But we by a love so much refined,
   That our selves know not what it is,
Inter-assured of the mind,
   Care less, eyes, lips, and hands to miss.

Our two souls therefore, which are one,
   Though I must go, endure not yet
A breach, but an expansion,
   Like gold to airy thinness beat.

If they be two, they are two so
   As stiff twin compasses are two;
Thy soul, the fixed foot, makes no show
   To move, but doth, if the other do.

And though it in the center sit,
   Yet when the other far doth roam,
It leans and hearkens after it,
   And grows erect, as that comes home.

Such wilt thou be to me, who must,
   Like th' other foot, obliquely run;
Thy firmness makes my circle just,
   And makes me end where I begun.

NOTA: La traducción de este poema plantea una interesante cuestión preliminar. En español, los elementos del compás mencionados en el poema se denominan “brazos” o “patas” por lo que no cabe traducirlos por el término “pie” que Donne utiliza y que le sirve bien como expresiva metáfora de la separación física, aunque no emocional, de la pareja provocada por el largo viaje que la persona poética va a emprender. El término “pata” resulta excesivamente vulgar y difícilmente encaja con el tono del elaborado “conceit” literario que se articula en el poema. El término brazo, aunque no representa de modo tan gráfico el concepto de desplazamiento, que queda atenuado, tiene la ventaja de sugerir la calidez de la relación amorosa que une a los amantes, por lo que su utilización si bien es cierto que hace que la metáfora del desplazamiento se debilite, equilibra la posible pérdida en ese sentido con la intensificación de la riqueza semántica en otro. (Angeles de la Concha)

Traducción de la parte del "Conceipt" larga metáfora que compara el alma de los dos amantes unidas como las patas de un compás.
Nuestras dos almas, por tanto, que son una,
aunque irme debo, sufren no
una brecha, sino una expansión
como el oro, batido, en ligereza etérea
Si son dos, son dos como los firmes
idénticos brazos del compás son dos;
tu alma, el brazo fijo, aparenta
no moverse, pero lo hace si lo hace el otro.
Y aunque se sitúe en el centro
sin embargo cuando el otro vaga lejos
tras él se inclina y lo escucha
y se erige recto cuando vuelve a casa
Así serás tú para mí, que debo,
como el otro brazo, desplazarme oblicuamente.
Tu firmeza hace que mi círculo sea exacto
y me hace terminar donde empecé.

The Flee

Mark but this flea, and mark in this,   
How little that which thou deniest me is;   
It sucked me first, and now sucks thee,
And in this flea our two bloods mingled be;   
Thou know’st that this cannot be said
A sin, nor shame, nor loss of maidenhead,
    Yet this enjoys before it woo,
    And pampered swells with one blood made of two,
    And this, alas, is more than we would do.

Oh stay, three lives in one flea spare,
Where we almost, nay more than married are.   
This flea is you and I, and this
Our mariage bed, and marriage temple is;   
Though parents grudge, and you, w'are met,   
And cloistered in these living walls of jet.
    Though use make you apt to kill me,
    Let not to that, self-murder added be,
    And sacrilege, three sins in killing three.

Cruel and sudden, hast thou since
Purpled thy nail, in blood of innocence?   
Wherein could this flea guilty be,
Except in that drop which it sucked from thee?   
Yet thou triumph’st, and say'st that thou   
Find’st not thy self, nor me the weaker now;
    ’Tis true; then learn how false, fears be:
    Just so much honor, when thou yield’st to me,
    Will waste, as this flea’s death took life from thee.

La pulga

Mira esta pulga, y mira cuán pequeño
es el favor que tú, cruel, me rehúsas;
me picó a mí primero; luego, a ti.
Y en esta pulga tu sangre y la mía
se han confundido; ¿puede declararse
que hay en tal hecho pecado, vergüenza,
o pérdida de la virginidad?
Pero este insecto disfruta,
sin matrimonio, y el muy consentido
con nuestras sangres se atiborra. En cambio
tal cosa no se nos es permitida a nosotros.

Detente, no la mates salva nuestras
tres vidas perdonando a este insectillo,
en quien nosotros casi nos casamos:
sirva esta pulga de lecho nupcial, sea templo
de nuestras bodas, por mucho que gruñan
tus padres y tú, ya ha sido consumado
adentro de este insecto nuestra unión.
Por más que matarme, mi amor, acostumbres,
no añadas suicidio a ese crimen,
ni sacrilegio, tres faltas en una.

Cruel, despiadada, ¿has manchado tus manos
con sangre inocente? ¿Qué culpa
puede esta pulga haber tenido, excepto
la gota que sustrajo de tus venas?
Pero sobreviviste al robo, y me señalas
que tú ni yo menos vivos estamos;
ello es verdad: ¿no te parece entonces
que falsos son tus miedos?, si te entregas
a mí tanto honor perderás como vida
con la picada de pulga perdiste.

Good Morrow

I wonder, by my troth, what thou and I
Did, till we loved? Were we not weaned till then?
But sucked on country pleasures, childishly?
Or snorted we in the Seven Sleepers’ den?
’Twas so; but this, all pleasures fancies be.
If ever any beauty I did see,
Which I desired, and got, ’twas but a dream of thee.

And now good-morrow to our waking souls,
Which watch not one another out of fear;
For love, all love of other sights controls,
And makes one little room an everywhere.
Let sea-discoverers to new worlds have gone,
Let maps to other, worlds on worlds have shown,
Let us possess one world, each hath one, and is one.

My face in thine eye, thine in mine appears,
And true plain hearts do in the faces rest;
Where can we find two better hemispheres,
Without sharp north, without declining west?
Whatever dies, was not mixed equally;
If our two loves be one, or, thou and I
Love so alike, that none do slacken, none can die.

Los Buenos Días

¿Qué hicimos, a fe mía, hasta el instante de amarnos?

¿Apenas habíamos empezado a vivir hasta entonces?

¿Absorbíamos puerilmente los placeres encendidos del campo?
¿O roncábamos en la cueva de los siete durmientes?
Así fue; pero eran fantasías todos esos placeres.
Siempre que descubría alguna belleza
y la deseaba, eras tú a la que anhelaba en mis sueños.
Y ahora buenos días a nuestras almas que despiertan,
Que se observan una a otra no sin miedo;
Por amor todo amor sobre otras miradas prevalece,
Y construye un pequeño refugio en cualquier parte.
Que los descubridores de mares visiten nuevos mundos,
Que mundos sobre mundos a otros los mapas les enseñen,
Déjennos conquistar un mundo;
Cada uno posee el suyo, y es sólo uno.
Mi rostro en tus ojos, en los míos el tuyo,
En los rostros descansan los fieles corazones;
¿Dónde podríamos encontrar dos hemisferios tan perfectos
Sin el Norte glacial, sin el agonizante ocaso?
Aquello que muere no está debidamente amalgamado;
Si son nuestros amores uno, o si nos amamos
Sin desmayo, de ningún modo moriremos.

The Sun Rising
       Busy old fool, unruly Sun,
        Why dost thou thus,
Through windows and through curtains call on us?
Must to thy motions lovers' seasons run?
        Saucy pedantic wretch, go chide
        Late schoolboys and sour 'prentices,
    Go tell court huntsmen that the King will ride,
    Call country ants to harvest offices;
Love, all alike, no season knows, nor clime,
Nor hours, days, months, which are the rags of time.

        Thy beams, so reverend and strong
        Why shoulds't thou think?
I could eclipse and cloud them with a wink,
But that I would not lose her sight so long;
        If her eyes have not blinded thine,
        Look, and tomorrow late, tell me,
    Whether both th'Indias of spice and mine
    Be where thou left'st them, or lie here with me?
Ask for those kings whom thou saw'st yesterday,
And thou shalt hear, 'All here in one bed lay.'

        She's all states, and all princes, I;
        Nothing else is.
Princes do but play us; compared to this,
All honour's mimic, all wealth alchemy.
        Thou, Sun, art half as happy as we,
        In that the world's contracted thus;
    Thine age asks ease, and since thy duties be
    To warm the world, that's done in warming us.
Shine here, to us, and thou art everywhere;
This bed thy centre is, these walls, thy sphere.

La salida del Sol

Viejo estúpido y rebelde, atareado Sol,
¿Por qué en esa forma
A través de ventanas y cortinas nos visitas?
¿Deben apresurar tus movimientos las estaciones de los amantes?
Descarado, pedante miserable, ve y engaña
A los escolares rezagados, a los huraños principiantes,
Ve y diles a los cazadores de la Corte que el Rey cabalgará,
Diles a las hormigas del campo que inicien su cosecha;
El amor, de todos modos, no sabe de estaciones, ni tampoco de clima,
Ni de horas, días o meses, esos andrajos del tiempo.

¿Tan fuertes y temidos imaginas tus rayos?
Yo podría eclipsarlos y nublarlos con un guiño,
Pero así perdería demasiado tiempo sin verla:
Si sus ojos no han cegado los tuyos,
Mira, y mañana, al caer la tarde, dime,
Si las Indias de minas y de especias
Están en su justo sitio o yacen aquí, conmigo,
Pregunta por los Reyes que ayer viste
Y habrás de escuchar: el Universo yace aquí en un mismo lecho.

Ella es todos los Estados y yo todos los Príncipes,
Nada más existe.
Príncipes hay pero nos engañan; reflexiona sobre ésto:
Todo honor es teatro, toda riqueza alquimia.
Tú, Sol, arte a medias, serías tan feliz como nosotros
Si en tal forma se redujera el mundo;
Tu edad pide reposo, y ya que tu deber es
Calentar el mundo, en nosotros ese deber lo cumples, nos calientas.
Brilla aquí por nosotros, y tu arte reinará en todas partes;
Este lecho es tu centro, estas paredes tu esfera.

The Canonization

For God's/ sake hold /your tongue,/ and let/ me love/,
         Or chide/ my pal/sy, or/ my gout,
My five/ gray hairs,/ or ru/ined for/tune flout,
         With wealth/ your state,/ your mind/ with arts/ improve,/
                Take you/ a course/, get you/ a place,
                Observe/ his ho/nor, or/ his grace,
Or the/ king's real/, or his/ stampèd face
         Contem/plate; what/ you will/, approve,
         So you/ will let/ me love.

Por Dios contén tu lengua, y déjame amar,
o reprende mi parálisis, o mi gota,
Mis cinco pelos blancos, o mi fortuna arruinada por amoral,
Con riquezas , con destreza mejora tu estado, tu razón,
Toma una dirección, encuentra tu sitio,
Observa su honor , o su elegancia,
la autenticidad del rey, su cara acuñada
que contempla; lo que tú vas a aprobar,
entonces me permitirás amar.

Alas, alas, who's injured by my love?
         What merchant's ships have my sighs drowned?
Who says my tears have overflowed his ground?
         When did my colds a forward spring remove?
                When did the heats which my veins fill
                Add one more to the plaguy bill?
Soldiers find wars, and lawyers find out still
         Litigious men, which quarrels move,
         Though she and I do love. 

¿Quién sale perjudicado por mi amor?
¿Qué flota de comerciantes se ha hundido por mis suspiros?
¿Quién dice que mis lágrimas han anegado su suelo?
¿Cuando mis fríos impidieron la venida de la primavera?
Cuando el calor que llena mis venas 
aumentó la factura de nadie?
Lo soldados tienen guerras, los abogados encuentran aún 
hombres litigantes, movidos por la disputa,
Pese a que ella y yo nos amemos.

Call us what you will, we are made such by love;
         Call her one, me another fly,
We're tapers too, and at our own cost die,
         And we in us find the eagle and the dove.
                The phœnix riddle hath more wit
                By us; we two being one, are it.
So, to one neutral thing both sexes fit.
         We die and rise the same, and prove
         Mysterious by this love.

Grítanos lo que quieras, estamos hechos sólo de amor,
Interpela a ella una vez, otro intento conmigo,
Nosotros estamos tan juntos, que por nuestro propio esfuerzo morimos, 
encontramos en nosotros mismos el águila y la paloma.
El enigma del ave Fénix tiene más ingenio 
Para nosotros; los dos somos uno, lo somos.
Entonces, los dos sexos se  adecuan en uno neutro.
Morimos y nos elevamos igualmente, y demostramos
el misterio de este amor.

We can die by it, if not live by love,
         And if unfit for tombs and hearse
Our legend be, it will be fit for verse;
         And if no piece of chronicle we prove,
                We'll build in sonnets pretty rooms;
                As well a well-wrought urn becomes
The greatest ashes, as half-acre tombs,
         And by these hymns, all shall approve
         Us canonized for Love.

And thus invoke us: "You, whom reverend love
         Made one another's hermitage;
You, to whom love was peace, that now is rage;
         Who did the whole world's soul contract, and drove
                Into the glasses of your eyes
                (So made such mirrors, and such spies,
That they did all to you epitomize)
         Countries, towns, courts: beg from above
         A pattern of your love!"

Comentario. En mi opinión le dice a quien critica su amor que calle o detenga el tiempo, que pare los signos de la vejez , si no puede controlar que el tiempo se vaya debe aprobar que él aproveche el tiempo, no hace mal a nadie. El rey permanece joven porque su imagen está acuñada, pero para las personas el tiempo se escapa.

Prosodia: Pentámetros , tetrámetros y triámetros yámbicos, subvertido en numerosas ocasiones. Más interesado en decir algo ingenioso que en una métrica regular.
Rima: ABBACCCAA, algunas de estas rimas son visuales como improve-love, al menos en la actualidad.
Figuras: La aliteraciones y asonancias vocálicas que ayudan al ritmo.

Batter my heart three person'd God

Batter my heart, three-person'd God, for you
As yet but , breathe, shine, and seek to mend;
That I may rise and stand, o'erthrow me, and bend
Your force to break, blow, burn, and make me new.

I, like an usurp'd town to another due,
Labor to admit you, but oh, to no end;
Reason, your viceroy in me, me should defend,
But is captiv'd, and proves weak or untrue. 

Yet dearly I love you, and would be lov'd fain,
But am betroth'd unto your enemy;
Divorce me, untie or break that knot again,
Take me to you, imprison me, for I,
Except you enthrall me, never shall be free,
Nor ever chaste, except you ravish me.

Maltratan mi corazón, las tres personas que tiene Dios, para ti
todavía, respira, brilla, busca para sanar;
Yo puedo subir y pararme, caerme, y doblarme
tu fuerza para romper, estallar, quemar y hacerme de nuevo.
Prefiero una ciudad usurpada a otra vencida,
Trabajo para confesarte, no hasta el final;
La razón, tu virrey en mí, podría defenderme,
pero está cautiva, débil o mentirosa. 
Te quiero sinceramente, y podría ser bien amado,
sin embargo estoy comprometido con el enemigo;
Sepárame, desata o rompe este nudo de nuevo,
tómame, hazme prisionero, por mí
 sólo tú me cautivas, no volveré a ser libre,
nunca seré virginal, excepto si tú me extasias.

"The Relique" by John Donne


John Milton
"Paradise Lost"


Prólogo e invocación (versos 1-26)

Milton abre The Paradise Lost declarando el tema de la obra, la desobediencia de la humanidad hacia Dios y sus consecuencias. Adán y Eva comen de la fruta del Árbol de la Ciencia, como cuenta el Génesis. En el primer verso, Milton juega con el fruto del árbol prohibido y la manzana real y los frutos de sus acciones. Afirma que el pecado original trajo la muerte al ser humano, causándonos la pérdida de nuestro hogar en el paraíso, antes de la llegada de Cristo para restaurar  a la humanidad su antigua pureza.
     La voz de Milton invoca a la musa de un místico recurso de inspiración poético para cantar sobre este asunto, pero se refiere a una musa diferente a la que inspiraba a los poetas clásicos. Especifica que esta musa inspiró a Moisés para recibir los Diez Mandamientos y escribir el Génesis. La musa de Milton es el Espíritu Santo, que inspiró la Sagrada Biblia, no una de las nueve musas que viven en el Monte Helicón (15).

    El revolucionario dice que su poema es como su musa, volará por encima de esos poetas clásicos y logrará hazañas nunca antes intentadas, porque su fuente de inspiración es mayor que la de ellos. Después invoca al Espíritu Santo, llenándole con la inspiración de la creación del mundo.  Quiere con esta sagrada sabiduría, mostrar a sus compañeros que los pecados de la humanidad y su muerte son parte del plan de Dios y que éste está justificado.

(Versos 1-126)

Inmediatamente después del prólogo en el que Milton cuenta de como Adán y Eva desobedecieron a causa del engaño de la serpiente, disfraz de Satán y sus seguidores en el Infierno, donde ellos fueron arrojados después de ser vencidos por Dios en el cielo. Satán se revuelca aturdido junto a su segundo en poder, Belcebú , en un lago de fuego que ofrece oscuridad en lugar de luz. Satán rompe el horrible silencio y se lamenta de su terrible posición, pero no se arrepiente de su rebelión contra Dios. Sugiere que unan sus fuerzas para otro ataque.

Belcebú está inseguro, cree que Dios no puede ser dominado y responde a Satán. (A partir verso 127).


 (Versos 1-130)

Satán desciende desde el Monte Asirio, al norte del Paraíso. De él se apodera la duda sobre su empresa en solitario; mirando la belleza e inocencia de la Tierra recuerda lo que fue una vez. Brevemente considera que habría sido perdonado de haberse arrepentido. Pero el infierno le sigue allá a donde vaya, Satán es en realidad la encarnación del infierno. Si pide perdón al Creador, sin duda lo hará a través de un falso arrepentimiento (96), argumenta que aunque volvió del infierno no soporta la idea de postrarse ante Dios sabe que la redención o la salvación no le serán otorgadas y decide seguir relanzando actos de pecado y maldad, su naturaleza es diabólica. Uriel, a quién  engañó para que le mostrara el camino, le ha estado observando. Pero  el arcángel  advierte su faz desfigurada y furioso gesto. Concluye que no es un ángel ya que estos tienen permanente alegría en sus rostros. 

(Versos 131-538)

Satán  se ahora se acerca al Edén que está rodeado por un gran muro de matorrales. Lo salta fácilmente como un lobo entrando en un corral de ovejas. Dentro descubre un idílico mundo con toda variedad de animales y árboles. Ve el más alto de todos El Árbol de la Vida y cerca el Árbol prohibido de la Ciencia. Satán se posa en el Árbol de la Vida disfrazado de cormorán. Finalmente advierte dos criaturas caminando rectas entre los animales. Estas dos criaturas caminan desnudas sin vergüenza alguna, obrando placenteramente tendidos en el jardín  (288). El sufrimiento y la envidia de Satán se intensifican cuando ve a esta nueva y hermosa raza creada después que él y sus legiones del infierno. Podría haberles amado, pero su condena será vengada a través de su destrucción. Continua mirándoles; Adán le dice a Eva que no se quejen por tener que obedecer a Dios, han de estar agradecidos,  Él les ha llenado de bendiciones con una sola demanda, está prohibido comer del Árbol de la Ciencia. Eva está de acuerdo de todo corazón y se abrazan. (450) Eva cuenta a Adán su primer despertar en el Paraíso, se preguntaba quién era donde estaba. Eva encontró un río y lo siguió hasta su nacimiento, el camino la condujo a un lago con agua pura, ella lo miró y vio una imagen en su superficie y descubrió que era ella misma reflejada. Escuchó una voz que le explicó que estaba hecha a partir de Adán y que con él se convertirá en la madre de la raza humana. Observando a Adán y Eva, Satán vio su oportunidad. Si el Creador les había dado una norma a seguir, él podría persuadirlos para romperla (522). Les deja un momento y va a aprender más sobre otros ángeles.

(Versos 539-1015)

Mientras tanto,  se acerca la noche y Uriel se presenta ante el Arcángel San Gabriel a las puertas del Edén y le habla sobre el espíritu de semblante cambiante que vio en la colina. Ambos sospechan que puede ser uno de los  ángeles caídos. Gabriel promete que si el espíritu está dentro del Jardín, lo encontrarán por la mañana. (610) Sobre esa hora Adán y Eva terminan su jornada de trabajo y van a su frondoso cenador alabando a Dios por su vida tan dichosa; después de una pequeña oración, reposan juntos, y se  amán sin pecado, porque la lujuria aun no había corrompido su naturaleza. (777) La noche cae, y Gabriel envía grupos de búsqueda al Jardín. Dos de sus ángeles encuentran a Satán disfrazado de sapo, susurrando al oído de Eva mientras ella duerme. Lo sacan de ahí y lo llevan ante Gabriel que lo reconoce  y le pregunta qué está haciendo en el Paraíso (877). Satán al principio finge inocencia, ya que no tiene pruebas de los daños. Pero Gabriel sabe que es un mentiroso y le amenaza con arrastrarle al infierno. Enfurecido por el trato, Satán se prepara para luchar contra él en una batalla decisiva (970). Pero aparece una  señal divina y surgen en el cielo un par de balanza de oro que les detiene. Satán reconoce el sentido de la señal, sabe que no ganará y huye.

Fin del libro IV de Milagros Utiel

Paradise Lost~ BOOK I ~

  1. Of Mans First Disobedience, and the Fruit
  2. Of that Forbidden Tree, whose mortal tast
  3. Brought Death into the World, and all our woe,
  4. With loss of Eden, till one greater Man
  5. Restore us, and regain the blissful Seat,
  6. Sing Heav'nly Muse, that on the secret top
  7. Of Oreb, or of Sinai, didst inspire
  8. That Shepherd, who first taught the chosen Seed,
  9. In the Beginning how the Heav'ns and Earth
  10. Rose out of Chaos: Or if Sion Hill
  11. Delight thee more, and Siloa's Brook that flow'd
  12. Fast by the Oracle of God; I thence
  13. Invoke thy aid to my adventrous Song,
  14. That with no middle flight intends to soar
  15. Above th' Aonian Mount, while it pursues
  16. Things unattempted yet in Prose or Rhime.
  17. And chiefly Thou O Spirit, that dost prefer
  18. Before all Temples th' upright heart and pure,
  19. Instruct me, for Thou know'st; Thou from the first
  20. Wast present, and with mighty wings outspread
  21. Dove-like satst brooding on the vast Abyss
  22. And mad'st it pregnant: What in me is dark
  23. Illumin, what is low raise and support;
  24. That to the highth of this great Argument
  25. I may assert Eternal Providence,
  26. And justifie the wayes of God to men.
  27.  Say first, for Heav'n hides nothing from thy view
  28. Nor the deep Tract of Hell, say first what cause
  29. Mov'd our Grand Parents in that happy State,
  30. Favour'd of Heav'n so highly, to fall off
  31. From thir Creator, and transgress his Will
  32. For one restraint, Lords of the World besides?
  33. Who first seduc'd them to that foul revolt?
  34. Th' infernal Serpent; he it was, whose guile
  35. Stird up with Envy and Revenge, deceiv'd
  36. The Mother of Mankind, what time his Pride
  37. Had cast him out from Heav'n, with all his Host
  38. Of Rebel Angels, by whose aid aspiring
  39. To set himself in Glory above his Peers,
  40. He trusted to have equal'd the most High,
  41. If he oppos'd; and with ambitious aim
  42. Against the Throne and Monarchy of God
  43. Rais'd impious War in Heav'n and Battel proud
  44. With vain attempt. Him the Almighty Power
  45. Hurld headlong flaming from th' Ethereal Skie
  46. With hideous ruine and combustion down
  47. To bottomless perdition, there to dwell
  48. In Adamantine Chains and penal Fire,
  49. Who durst defie th' Omnipotent to Arms.

  1. Tell me about man's first sin, when he tasted the forbidden fruit and caused all our troubles, until Jesus came and saved us.
  2. Inspire me with this knowledge. You are the heavenly spirit who inspired Moses in his teachings.
  3. I'm asking for your help because I want to write a great work different from any that was ever written before.
  4. I want you to teach me, Holy Spirit, because you value goodness more than fancy churches. 
  5. You know everything. You were there at the Beginning. You sat like a dove with your wings spread over the dark emptiness and made it come to life. 
  6. Enlighten me where I am ignorant and strengthen my abilities so that I can correctly explain God's great purpose to men.
  7. You know everything about Heaven and Hell, so tell me, what was it that made Adam and Eve go against God's orders? They seemed so happy. He had given them the whole world, except for one little thing. 
  8. Who made them do this awful thing? It was that snake from Hell, wasn't it. His envy and thirst for revenge made him go trick Eve the way he did. 
  9. His pride had got him thrown out of Heaven with all his followers. They supported him in his ambition to glorify himself - even to the point of waging war against God.
  10. But he was doomed to fail. After a terrible war, God threw him into Hell for daring to fight him.

  1. Nine times the Space that measures Day and Night
  2. To mortal men, he with his horrid crew
  3. Lay vanquisht, rowling in the fiery Gulfe
  4. Confounded though immortal: But his doom
  5. Reserv'd him to more wrath; for now the thought
  6. Both of lost happiness and lasting pain
  7. Torments him; round he throws his baleful eyes
  8. That witness'd huge affliction and dismay
  9. Mixt with obdurate pride and stedfast hate:
  10. At once as far as Angels kenn he views
  11. The dismal Situation waste and wilde,
  12. A Dungeon horrible, on all sides round
  13. As one great Furnace flam'd, yet from those flames
  14. No light, but rather darkness visible
  15. Serv'd onely to discover sights of woe,
  16. Regions of sorrow, doleful shades, where peace
  17. And rest can never dwell, hope never comes
  18. That comes to all; but torture without end
  19. Still urges, and a fiery Deluge, fed
  20. With ever-burning Sulphur unconsum'd:
  21. Such place Eternal Justice had prepar'd
  22. For those rebellious, here thir Prison ordain'd
  23. In utter darkness, and thir portion set
  24. As far remov'd from God and light of Heav'n
  25. As from the Center thrice to th' utmost Pole.
  26. O how unlike the place from whence they fell!
  27. There the companions of his fall, o'rewhelm'd
  28. With Floods and Whirlwinds of tempestuous fire,
  29. He soon discerns, and weltring by his side
  30. One next himself in power, and next in crime,
  31. Long after known in Palestine, and nam'd
  32. Beelzebub. To whom th' Arch-Enemy,
  33. And thence in Heav'n call'd Satan, with bold words
  34. Breaking the horrid silence thus began.
  35.  If thou beest he; But O how fall'n! how chang'd
  36. From him, who in the happy Realms of Light
  37. Cloth'd with transcendent brightness didst out-shine
  38. Myriads though bright: If he Whom mutual league,
  39. United thoughts and counsels, equal hope
  40. And hazard in the Glorious Enterprize,
  41. Joynd with me once, now misery hath joynd
  42. In equal ruin: into what Pit thou seest
  43. From what highth fall'n, so much the stronger prov'd
  44. He with his Thunder: and till then who knew
  45. The force of those dire Arms? yet not for those,
  46. Nor what the Potent Victor in his rage
  47. Can else inflict, do I repent or change,
  48. Though chang'd in outward lustre; that fixt mind
  49. And high disdain, from sence of injur'd merit,
  50. That with the mightiest rais'd me to contend,

  1. For nine days he and his evil followers were lying helpless in the fires of Hell.
  2. But soon he grew angry, thinking about all the lost pleasures and the unending pain. 
  3. He looked around and saw a lot of suffering. But he only felt stubborn pride and hatefulness. 
  4. As far as he could see there were flames, but they burned dark instead of bright, and they only revealed sorrow and hopelessness. 
  5. These fires would never go out and the torture would never end.
  6. This is the place Justice made for those who rebel against God.
  7. It was as far from Heaven and Heaven's light and as different from Heaven as it could be.
  8. This is where he saw all his defeated followers. And there, wallowing in the flames right next to him, was his top assistant. 
  9. Later we would know him as Beelzebub. 
  10. His leader, who they called Satan, finally spoke. 
  11. Is this really you? If you are who I think you are, how you've changed! Your brightness that outshined everyone is gone. 
  12. If you're the one who joined me in planning and undertaking our grand mission--it looks like now we are joined again, but in misery. 
  13. Look at how far we fell! It turns out he was much stronger than us after all, but how could we know that? 
  14. But I don't care what he did to us, or may still do, I'm not sorry. And I'm not going to change. 
  15. My appearance may have changed, but the indignity I suffered that caused me to fight him hasn't changed.

  1. And to the fierce contention brought along
  2. Innumerable force of Spirits arm'd
  3. That durst dislike his reign, and me preferring,
  4. His utmost power with adverse power oppos'd
  5. In dubious Battel on the Plains of Heav'n,
  6. And shook his throne. What though the field be lost?
  7. All is not lost; the unconquerable Will,
  8. And study of revenge, immortal hate,
  9. And courage never to submit or yield:
  10. And what is else not to be overcome?
  11. That Glory never shall his wrath or might
  12. Extort from me. To bow and sue for grace
  13. With suppliant knee, and deifie his power,
  14. Who from the terrour of this Arm so late
  15. Doubted his Empire, that were low indeed,
  16. That were an ignominy and shame beneath
  17. This downfall; since by Fate the strength of Gods
  18. And this Empyreal substance cannot fail,
  19. Since through experience of this great event
  20. In Arms not worse, in foresight much advanc't,
  21. We may with more successful hope resolve
  22. To wage by force or guile eternal Warr
  23. Irreconcileable, to our grand Foe,
  24. Who now triumphs, and in th' excess of joy
  25. Sole reigning holds the Tyranny of Heav'n.
  26.  So spake th' Apostate Angel, though in pain,
  27. Vaunting aloud, but rackt with deep despare:
  28. And him thus answer'd soon his bold Compeer.
  29.  O Prince, O Chief of many Throned Powers,
  30. That led th' imbattelld Seraphim to Warr
  31. Under thy conduct, and in dreadful deeds
  32. Fearless, endanger'd Heav'ns perpetual King;
  33. And put to proof his high Supremacy,
  34. Whether upheld by strength, or Chance, or Fate,
  35. Too well I see and rue the dire event,
  36. That with sad overthrow and foul defeat
  37. Hath lost us Heav'n, and all this mighty Host
  38. In horrible destruction laid thus low,
  39. As far as Gods and Heav'nly Essences
  40. Can perish: for the mind and spirit remains
  41. Invincible, and vigour soon returns,
  42. Though all our Glory extinct, and happy state
  43. Here swallow'd up in endless misery.
  44. But what if he our Conquerour, (whom I now
  45. Of force believe Almighty, since no less
  46. Then such could hav orepow'rd such force as ours)
  47. Have left us this our spirit and strength intire
  48. Strongly to suffer and support our pains,
  49. That we may so suffice his vengeful ire,
  50. Or do him mightier service as his thralls
  51. By right of Warr, what e're his business be
  52. Here in the heart of Hell to work in Fire,
  53. Or do his Errands in the gloomy Deep;

Paradise Lost~ BOOK IV ~

  1. O for that warning voice, which he who saw
  2. Th' Apocalyps, heard cry in Heaven aloud,
  3. Then when the Dragon, put to second rout,
  4. Came furious down to be reveng'd on men,
  5. Wo to the inhabitants on Earth! that now,
  6. While time was, our first-Parents had bin warnd
  7. The coming of thir secret foe, and scap'd
  8. Haply so scap'd his mortal snare; for now
  9. Satan, now first inflam'd with rage, came down,
  10. The Tempter ere th' Accuser of man-kind,
  11. To wreck on innocent frail man his loss
  12. Of that first Battel, and his flight to Hell:
  13. Yet not rejoycing in his speed, though bold,
  14. Far off and fearless, nor with cause to boast,
  15. Begins his dire attempt, which nigh the birth
  16. Now rowling, boiles in his tumultuous brest,
  17. And like a devillish Engine back recoiles
  18. Upon himself; horror and doubt distract
  19. His troubl'd thoughts, and from the bottom stirr
  20. The Hell within him, for within him Hell
  21. He brings, and round about him, nor from Hell
  22. One step no more then from himself can fly
  23. By change of place: Now conscience wakes despair
  24. That slumberd, wakes the bitter memorie
  25. Of what he was, what is, and what must be
  26. Worse; of worse deeds worse sufferings must ensue.
  27. Sometimes towards Eden which now in his view
  28. Lay pleasant, his grievd look he fixes sad,
  29. Sometimes towards Heav'n and the full-blazing Sun,
  30. Which now sat high in his Meridian Towre:
  31. Then much revolving, thus in sighs began.
  32. O thou that with surpassing Glory crownd,
  33. Look'st from thy sole Dominion like the God
  34. Of this new World; at whose sight all the Starrs
  35. Hide thir diminisht heads; to thee I call,
  36. But with no friendly voice, and add thy name
  37. O Sun, to tell thee how I hate thy beams
  38. That bring to my remembrance from what state
  39. I fell, how glorious once above thy Spheare;
  40. Till Pride and worse Ambition threw me down
  41. Warring in Heav'n against Heav'ns matchless King:
  42. Ah wherefore! he deservd no such return
  43. From me, whom he created what I was
  44. In that bright eminence, and with his good
  45. Upbraided none; nor was his service hard.


  1. I wish somebody had warned Adam and Eve, the way St. John warned everybody about Satan in the Book of Revelation.
  2. Then maybe they could've been saved.
  3. Satan was coming to Earth to take revenge on them for losing the war and being thrown into Hell.
  4. But he was feeling less sure of himself than when he began his mission.
  5. He was feeling nervous.
  6. He couldn't escape the feeling that he was still in Hell.
  7. He was suddenly overwhelmed by painful memories of the glory he once had and how terrible his situation had become.
  8. He looked down at Eden, which was beautiful. Then he looked up at the full shining sun.
  9. He said to the sun, You look like the god of this new world. All the stars hide when you come out.
  10. But I hate you. I hate how you remind me of how glorious I once was--even more glorious than you.
  11. Pride and ambition caused me to go against God. But why? He's the one who gave me my glory. He was kind to me. And he didn't ask much in return.

  1. What could be less then to afford him praise,
  2. The easiest recompence, and pay him thanks,
  3. How due! yet all his good prov'd ill in me,
  4. And wrought but malice; lifted up so high
  5. I sdeind subjection, and thought one step higher
  6. Would set me highest, and in a moment quit
  7. The debt immense of endless gratitude,
  8. So burthensome, still paying, still to ow;
  9. Forgetful what from him I still receivd,
  10. And understood not that a grateful mind
  11. By owing owes not, but still pays, at once
  12. Indebted and dischargd; what burden then?
  13. O had his powerful Destiny ordaind
  14. Me some inferiour Angel, I had stood
  15. Then happie; no unbounded hope had rais'd
  16. Ambition. Yet why not? som other Power
  17. As great might have aspir'd, and me though mean
  18. Drawn to his part; but other Powers as great
  19. Fell not, but stand unshak'n, from within
  20. Or from without, to all temptations arm'd.
  21. Hadst thou the same free Will and Power to stand?
  22. Thou hadst: whom hast thou then or what to accuse,
  23. But Heav'ns free Love dealt equally to all?
  24. Be then his Love accurst, since love or hate,
  25. To me alike, it deals eternal woe.
  26. Nay curs'd be thou; since against his thy will
  27. Chose freely what it now so justly rues.
  28. Me miserable! which way shall I flie
  29. Infinite wrauth, and infinite despaire?
  30. Which way I flie is Hell; my self am Hell;
  31. And in the lowest deep a lower deep
  32. Still threatning to devour me opens wide,
  33. To which the Hell I suffer seems a Heav'n.
  34. O then at last relent: is there no place
  35. Left for Repentance, none for Pardon left?
  36. None left but by submission; and that word
  37. Disdain forbids me, and my dread of shame
  38. Among the Spirits beneath, whom I seduc'd
  39. With other promises and other vaunts
  40. Then to submit, boasting I could subdue
  41. Th' Omnipotent. Ay me, they little know
  42. How dearly I abide that boast so vaine,
  43. Under what torments inwardly I groane:
  44. While they adore me on the Throne of Hell,
  45. With Diadem and Sceptre high advanc'd
  46. The lower still I fall, onely Supream
  47. In miserie; such joy Ambition findes.
  48. But say I could repent and could obtaine
  49. By Act of Grace my former state; how soon
  50. Would higth recall high thoughts, how soon unsay
  51. What feign'd submission swore: ease would recant
  52. Vows made in pain, as violent and void.

  1. What was so hard about giving him the praise and thanks that he deserved? 
  2. But all his goodness only made me bad. 
  3. I was in a high position, but it just made me want to be higher. 
  4. I got sick of always saying thank you. 
  5. I guess I forgot all that he continually gave. 
  6. I didn't see that feeling gratitude does not need to be expressed in words. So what was the problem? 
  7. Maybe it would have been better if he had made me a lesser angel. Then I wouldn't have become so ambitious. 
  8. But then maybe another high angel would've done what I did. And I would end up one ofhis followers. 
  9. But there were other angels as powerful as me, yet they never rebelled. 
  10. I had the same free will as they did. So what do I have to blame for my fall? 
  11. Nothing but God's love that he gives equally to everybody. Then damn his love! Since it makes no difference whether he loves me or hates me. Here's where I end up. 
  12. No, damn myself. Since I freely chose to do what I did, and now sadly regret. 
  13. I feel like Hell. Wherever I go is Hell. Infinite Hell, infinite hate, infinite despair. 
  14. And yet I'm afraid an even worse Hell waits for me--one so bad that, compared to it, this is like Heaven. 
  15. What can I do? Is there any way out of this? Yes, I can beg forgiveness, but the thought of it makes me sick. 
  16. What shame I would feel before all my followers. 
  17. I led them to this, with promises and bragging how I could beat God. 
  18. They should only know how I now eat those words, and what terror I feel while they worship me as their king. 
  19. King of misery, that's me. Still falling into worse misery. 
  20. Even if I could be forgiven, how long could I keep up the insincere apologies I made in pain, once I was back in my comfortable old high place.
  1. Things have gone way too far. There's too much hatred to ever be undone. 
  2. I would only relapse into worse hatred and worse rebellion. Any reconcilement would be short-lived. 
  3. God knows all this. He's as unlikely to fogive me as I am to ask him to. 
  4. He's given up on us and created this new world of man to take our place. 
  5. So all hope is gone, and with it, fear and regret as well. 
  6. All good is lost to me. Evil will become my good. Let God rule over the world of good. I will rule over evil--and maybe my half will turn out to be bigger than his, as mankind may soon find out. 
  7. While he spoke, his evil emotions showed on his face. If anybody had seen him, it would have given away his phony cherub's disguise, since they never have such bad thoughts. 
  8. Realizing this, he quickly changed his expression. He was the first one ever to pretend to be saintly, while hiding his true evil intent. 
  9. But he was too late. Uriel had been watching him the whole time.

  1. So on he fares, and to the border comes
  2. Of Eden, where delicious Paradise,
  3. Now nearer, Crowns with her enclosure green,
  4. As with a rural mound the champain head
  5. Of a steep wilderness, whose hairie sides
  6. With thicket overgrown, grottesque and wilde,
  7. Access deni'd; and over head up grew
  8. Insuperable highth of loftiest shade,
  9. Cedar, and Pine, and Firr, and branching Palm
  10. A Silvan Scene, and as the ranks ascend
  11. Shade above shade, a woodie Theatre
  12. Of stateliest view. Yet higher then thir tops
  13. The verdurous wall of paradise up sprung:
  14. Which to our general Sire gave prospect large
  15. Into his neather Empire neighbouring round.
  16. And higher then that Wall a circling row
  17. Of goodliest Trees loaden with fairest Fruit,
  18. Blossoms and Fruits at once of golden hue
  19. Appeerd, with gay enameld colours mixt:
  20. On which the Sun more glad impress'd his beams
  21. Then in fair Evening Cloud, or humid Bow,
  22. When God hath showrd the earth; so lovely seemd
  23. That Lantskip: And of pure now purer aire
  24. Meets his approach, and to the heart inspires
  25. Vernal delight and joy, able to drive
  26. All sadness but despair: now gentle gales
  27. Fanning thir odoriferous wings dispense
  28. Native perfumes, and whisper whence they stole
  29. Those balmie spoiles. As when to them who saile
  30. Beyond the Cape of Hope, and now are past
  31. Mozambic, off at Sea North-East windes blow
  32. Sabean Odours from the spicie shoare
  33. Of Arabie the blest, with such delay
  34. Well pleas'd they slack thir course, and many a League
  35. Chear'd with the grateful smell old Ocean smiles.
  36. So entertaind those odorous sweets the Fiend
  37. Who came thir bane, though with them better pleas'd
  38. Then Asmodeus with the fishie fume,
  39. That drove him, though enamourd, from the Spouse
  40. Of Tobits Son, and with a vengeance sent
  41. From Media post to Ægypt, there fast bound.
  42. Now to th' ascent of that steep savage Hill
  43. Satan had journied on, pensive and slow;
  44. But further way found none, so thick entwin'd,
  45. As one continu'd brake, the undergrowth
  46. Of shrubs and tangling bushes had perplext
  47. All path of Man or Beast that past that way:
  48. One Gate there only was, and that look'd East
  49. On th' other side: which when th' arch-fellon saw
  50. Due entrance he disdaind, and in contempt,
  51. At one slight bound high over leap'd all bound
  52. Of Hill or highest Wall, and sheer within
  53. Lights on his feet. As when a prowling Wolfe,
  54. Whom hunger drives to seek new haunt for prey,
  55. Watching where Shepherds pen thir Flocks at eeve
  56. In hurdl'd Cotes amid the field secure,
  57. Leaps o're the fence with ease into the Fould:
  58. Or as a Thief bent to unhoord the cash
  59. Of some rich Burgher, whose substantial dores,
  60. Cross-barrd and bolted fast, fear no assault,
  61. In at the window climbs, or o're the tiles;
  62. So clomb this first grand Thief into Gods Fould:
  63. So since into his Church lewd Hirelings climbe.
  64. Thence up he flew, and on the Tree of Life,
  65. The middle Tree and highest there that grew,
  66. Sat like a Cormorant; yet not true Life
  67. Thereby regaind, but sat devising Death
  68. To them who liv'd; nor on the vertue thought
  69. Of that life-giving Plant, but only us'd
  70. For prospect, what well us'd had bin the pledge
  71. Of immortality. So little knows
  72. Any, but God alone, to value right
  73. The good before him, but perverts best things
  74. To worst abuse, or to thir meanest use.
  75. Beneath him with new wonder now he views
  76. To all delight of human sense expos'd
  77. In narrow room Natures whole wealth, yea more,
  78. A Heaven on Earth, for blissful Paradise
  79. Of God the Garden was, by him in the East
  80. Of Eden planted; Eden stretchd her Line
  81. From Auran Eastward to the Royal Towrs
  82. Of Great Seleucia, built by Grecian Kings,
  83. Or where the Sons of Eden long before
  84. Dwelt in Telassar: in this pleasant soile
  85. His farr more pleasant Garden God ordaind;
  86. Out of the fertil ground he caus'd to grow
  87. All Trees of noblest kind for sight, smell, taste;
  88. And all amid them stood the Tree of Life,
  89. High eminent, blooming Ambrosial Fruit
  90. Of vegetable Gold; and next to Life
  91. Our Death the Tree of Knowledge grew fast by,
  92. Knowledge of Good bought dear by knowing ill.
  93. Southward through Eden went a River large,
  94. Nor chang'd his course, but through the shaggie hill
  95. Pass'd underneath ingulft, for God had thrown
  96. That Mountain as his Garden mould high rais'd
  97. Upon the rapid current, which through veins
  98. Of porous Earth with kindly thirst up drawn,
  99. Rose a fresh Fountain, and with many a rill
  100. Waterd the Garden; thence united fell
  101. Down the steep glade, and met the neather Flood,
  102. Which from his darksom passage now appeers,
  103. And now divided into four main Streams,
  104. Runs divers, wandring many a famous Realme
  105. And Country whereof here needs no account,
  106. But rather to tell how, if Art could tell,
  107. How from that Saphire Fount the crisped Brooks,
  108. Rowling on Orient Pearl and sands of Gold,
  109. With mazie error under pendant shades
  110. Ran Nectar, visiting each plant, and fed
  111. Flours worthy of Paradise which not nice Art
  112. In Beds and curious Knots, but Nature boon
  113. Powrd forth profuse on Hill and Dale and Plaine,
  114. Both where the morning Sun first warmly smote
  115. The open field, and where the unpierc't shade
  116. Imbround the noontide Bowrs: Thus was this place,
  117. A happy rural seat of various view;
  118. Groves whose rich Trees wept odorous Gumms and Balme,
  119. Others whose fruit burnisht with Golden Rinde
  120. Hung amiable, Hesperian Fables true,
  121. If true, here only, and of delicious taste:
  122. Betwixt them Lawns, or level Downs, and Flocks
  123. Grasing the tender herb, were interpos'd,
  124. Or palmie hilloc, or the flourie lap
  125. Of som irriguous Valley spred her store,
  126. Flours of all hue, and without Thorn the Rose:
  127. Another side, umbrageous Grots and Caves
  128. Of coole recess, o're which the mantling vine
  129. Layes forth her purple Grape, and gently creeps
  130. Luxuriant; mean while murmuring waters fall
  131. Down the slope hills, disperst, or in a Lake,
  132. That to the fringed Bank with Myrtle crownd,
  133. Her chrystal mirror holds, unite thir streams.
  134. The Birds thir quire apply; aires, vernal aires,
  135. Breathing the smell of field and grove, attune
  136. The trembling leaves, while Universal Pan
  137. Knit with the Graces and the Hours in dance
  138. Led on th' Eternal Spring. Not that faire field
  139. Of Enna, where Proserpin gathering flours
  140. Her self a fairer Floure by gloomie Dis
  141. Was gatherd, which cost Ceres all that pain
  142. To seek her through the world; nor that sweet Grove
  143. Of Daphne by Orontes, and th' inspir'd
  144. Castalian Spring, might with this Paradise
  145. Of Eden strive; nor that Nyseian Ile
  146. Girt with the River Triton, where old Cham,
  147. Whom Gentiles Ammon call and Lybian Jove,
  148. Hid Amalthea and her Florid Son
  149. Young Bacchus from his Stepdame Rhea's eye;
  150. Nor where Abassin Kings thir issue Guard,
  151. Mount Amara, though this by som suppos'd
  152. True Paradise under the Ethiop Line
  153. By Nilus head, enclosd with shining Rock,
  154. A whole days journy high, but wide remote
  155. From this Assyrian Garden, where the Fiend
  156. Saw undelighted all delight, all kind
  157. Of living Creatures new to sight and strange:
  158. Two of far nobler shape erect and tall,
  159. Godlike erect, with native Honour clad
  160. In naked Majestie seemd Lords of all,
  161. And worthie seemd, for in thir looks Divine
  162. The image of thir glorious Maker shon,
  163. Truth, wisdome, Sanctitude severe and pure,
  164. Severe but in true filial freedom plac't;
  165. Whence true autority in men; though both
  166. Not equal, as thir sex not equal seemd;
  167. For contemplation hee and valour formd,
  168. For softness shee and sweet attractive Grace,
  169. Hee for God only, shee for God in him:
  170. His fair large Front and Eye sublime declar'd
  171. Absolute rule; and Hyacinthin Locks
  172. Round from his parted forelock manly hung
  173. Clustring, but not beneath his shoulders broad:
  174. Shee as a vail down to the slender waste
  175. Her unadorned golden tresses wore
  176. Disheveld, but in wanton ringlets wav'd
  177. As the Vine curles her tendrils, which impli'd
  178. Subjection, but requir'd with gentle sway,
  179. And by her yielded, by him best receivd,
  180. Yielded with coy submission, modest pride,
  181. And sweet reluctant amorous delay.
  182. Nor those mysterious parts were then conceald,
  183. Then was not guiltie shame, dishonest shame
  184. Of natures works, honor dishonorable,
  185. Sin-bred, how have ye troubl'd all mankind
  186. With shews instead, meer shews of seeming pure,
  187. And banisht from mans life his happiest life,
  188. Simplicitie and spotless innocence.
  189. So passd they naked on, nor shund the sight
  190. Of God or Angel, for they thought no ill:
  191. So hand in hand they passd, the lovliest pair
  192. That ever since in loves imbraces met,
  193. Adam the goodliest man of men since borne
  194. His Sons, the fairest of her Daughters Eve.
  195. Under a tuft of shade that on a green
  196. Stood whispering soft, by a fresh Fountain side
  197. They sat them down, and after no more toil
  198. Of thir sweet Gardning labour then suffic'd
  199. To recommend coole Zephyr, and made ease
  200. More easie, wholsom thirst and appetite
  201. More grateful, to thir Supper Fruits they fell,
  202. Nectarine Fruits which the compliant boughes
  203. Yielded them, side-long as they sat recline
  204. On the soft downie Bank damaskt with flours:
  205. The savourie pulp they chew, and in the rinde
  206. Still as they thirsted scoop the brimming stream;
  207. Nor gentle purpose, nor endearing smiles
  208. Wanted, nor youthful dalliance as beseems
  209. Fair couple, linkt in happie nuptial League,
  210. Alone as they. About them frisking playd
  211. All Beasts of th' Earth, since wilde, and of all chase
  212. In Wood or Wilderness, Forrest or Den;
  213. Sporting the Lion rampd, and in his paw
  214. Dandl'd the Kid; Bears, Tygers, Ounces, Pards
  215. Gambold before them, th' unwieldy Elephant
  216. To make them mirth us'd all his might, and wreathd
  217. His Lithe Proboscis; close the Serpent sly
  218. Insinuating, wove with Gordian twine
  219. His breaded train, and of his fatal guile
  220. Gave proof unheeded; others on the grass
  221. Coucht, and now fild with pasture gazing sat,
  222. Or Bedward ruminating: for the Sun
  223. Declin'd was hasting now with prone carreer
  224. To th' Ocean Iles, and in th' ascending Scale
  225. Of Heav'n the Starrs that usher Evening rose:
  226. When Satan still in gaze, as first he stood,
  227. Scarce thus at length faild speech recoverd sad.
  228. O Hell! what doe mine eyes with grief behold,
  229. Into our room of bliss thus high advanc't
  230. Creatures of other mould, earth-born perhaps,
  231. Not Spirits, yet to heav'nly Spirits bright
  232. Little inferior; whom my thoughts pursue
  233. With wonder, and could love, so lively shines
  234. In them Divine resemblance, and such grace
  235. The hand that formd them on thir shape hath pourd.
  236. Ah gentle pair, yee little think how nigh
  237. Your change approaches, when all these delights
  238. Will vanish and deliver ye to woe,
  239. More woe, the more your taste is now of joy;
  240. Happie, but for so happie ill secur'd
  241. Long to continue, and this high seat your Heav'n
  242. Ill fenc't for Heav'n to keep out such a foe
  243. As now is enterd; yet no purpos'd foe
  244. To you whom I could pittie thus forlorne
  245. Though I unpittied: League with you I seek,
  246. And mutual amitie so streight, so close,
  247. That I with you must dwell, or you with me
  248. Henceforth; my dwelling haply may not please
  249. Like this fair Paradise, your sense, yet such
  250. Accept your Makers work; he gave it me,
  251. Which I as freely give; Hell shall unfold,
  252. To entertain you two, her widest Gates,
  253. And send forth all her Kings; there will be room,
  254. Not like these narrow limits, to receive
  255. Your numerous ofspring; if no better place,
  256. Thank him who puts me loath to this revenge
  257. On you who wrong me not for him who wrongd.
  258. And should I at your harmless innocence
  259. Melt, as I doe, yet public reason just,
  260. Honour and Empire with revenge enlarg'd,
  261. By conquering this new World, compels me now
  262. To do what else though damnd I should abhorre.
  263. So spake the Fiend, and with necessitie,
  264. The Tyrants plea, excus'd his devilish deeds.
  265. Then from his loftie stand on that high Tree
  266. Down he alights among the sportful Herd
  267. Of those fourfooted kindes, himself now one,
  268. Now other, as thir shape servd best his end
  269. Neerer to view his prey, and unespi'd
  270. To mark what of thir state he more might learn
  271. By word or action markt: about them round
  272. A Lion now he stalkes with fierie glare,
  273. Then as a Tyger, who by chance hath spi'd
  274. In some Purlieu two gentle Fawnes at play,
  275. Strait couches close, then rising changes oft
  276. His couchant watch, as one who chose his ground
  277. Whence rushing he might surest seize them both
  278. Gript in each paw: when Adam first of men
  279. To first of women Eve thus moving speech,
  280. Turnd him all eare to hear new utterance flow.
  281. Sole partner and sole part of all these joyes,
  282. Dearer thy self then all; needs must the Power
  283. That made us, and for us this ample World
  284. Be infinitly good, and of his good
  285. As liberal and free as infinite,
  286. That rais'd us from the dust and plac't us here
  287. In all this happiness, who at his hand
  288. Have nothing merited, nor can performe
  289. Aught whereof hee hath need, hee who requires
  290. From us no other service then to keep
  291. This one, this easie charge, of all the Trees
  292. In Paradise that bear delicious fruit
  293. So various, not to taste that onely Tree
  294. Of knowledge, planted by the Tree of Life,
  295. So neer grows Death to Life, what ere Death is,
  296. Som dreadful thing no doubt; for well thou knowst
  297. God hath pronounc't it death to taste that Tree,
  298. The only sign of our obedience left
  299. Among so many signes of power and rule
  300. Conferrd upon us, and Dominion giv'n
  301. Over all other Creatures that possess
  302. Earth, Aire, and Sea. Then let us not think hard
  303. One easie prohibition, who enjoy
  304. Free leave so large to all things else, and choice
  305. Unlimited of manifold delights:
  306. But let us ever praise him, and extoll
  307. His bountie, following our delightful task
  308. To prune these growing Plants, and tend these Flours,
  309. Which were it toilsom, yet with thee were sweet.
  310. To whom thus Eve repli'd. O thou for whom
  311. And from whom I was formd flesh of thy flesh,
  312. And without whom am to no end, my Guide
  313. And Head, what thou hast said is just and right.
  314. For wee to him indeed all praises owe,
  315. And daily thanks, I chiefly who enjoy
  316. So farr the happier Lot, enjoying thee
  317. Præeminent by so much odds, while thou
  318. Like consort to thy self canst no where find.
  319. That day I oft remember, when from sleep
  320. I first awak't, and found my self repos'd
  321. Under a shade of flours, much wondring where
  322. And what I was, whence thither brought, and how.
  323. Not distant far from thence a murmuring sound
  324. Of waters issu'd from a Cave and spread
  325. Into a liquid Plain, then stood unmov'd
  326. Pure as th' expanse of Heav'n; I thither went
  327. With unexperienc't thought, and laid me downe
  328. On the green bank, to look into the cleer
  329. Smooth Lake, that to me seemd another Skie.
  330. As I bent down to look, just opposite,
  331. A Shape within the watry gleam appeard
  332. Bending to look on me, I started back,
  333. It started back, but pleas'd I soon returnd,
  334. Pleas'd it returnd as soon with answering looks
  335. Of sympathie and love; there I had fixt
  336. Mine eyes till now, and pin'd with vain desire,
  337. Had not a voice thus warnd me, What thou seest,
  338. What there thou seest fair Creature is thy self,
  339. With thee it came and goes: but follow me,
  340. And I will bring thee where no shadow staies
  341. Thy coming, and thy soft imbraces, hee
  342. Whose image thou art, him thou shalt enjoy
  343. Inseparablie thine, to him shalt beare
  344. Multitudes like thy self, and thence be call'd
  345. Mother of human Race: what could I doe,
  346. But follow strait, invisibly thus led?
  347. Till I espi'd thee, fair indeed and tall,
  348. Under a Platan, yet methought less faire,
  349. Less winning soft, less amiablie milde,
  350. Then that smooth watry image; back I turnd,
  351. Thou following cryd'st aloud, Return faire Eve,
  352. Whom fli'st thou? whom thou fli'st, of him thou art,
  353. His flesh, his bone; to give thee being I lent
  354. Out of my side to thee, neerest my heart
  355. Substantial Life, to have thee by my side
  356. Henceforth an individual solace dear;
  357. Part of my Soul I seek thee, and thee claim
  358. My other half: with that thy gentle hand
  359. Seisd mine, I yielded, and from that time see
  360. How beauty is excelld by manly grace
  361. And wisdom, which alone is truly fair.
  362. So spake our general Mother, and with eyes
  363. Of conjugal attraction unreprov'd,
  364. And meek surrender, half imbracing leand
  365. On our first Father, half her swelling Breast
  366. Naked met his under the flowing Gold
  367. Of her loose tresses hid: he in delight
  368. Both of her Beauty and submissive Charms
  369. Smil'd with superior Love, as Jupiter
  370. On Juno smiles, when he impregns the Clouds
  371. That shed May Flowers; and press'd her Matron lip
  372. With kisses pure: aside the Devil turnd
  373. For envie, yet with jealous leer maligne
  374. Ey'd them askance, and to himself thus plaind.
  375. Sight hateful, sight tormenting! thus these two
  376. Imparadis't in one anothers arms
  377. The happier Eden, shall enjoy thir fill
  378. Of bliss on bliss, while I to Hell am thrust,
  379. Where neither joy nor love, but fierce desire,
  380. Among our other torments not the least,
  381. Still unfulfill'd with pain of longing pines;
  382. Yet let me not forget what I have gain'd
  383. From thir own mouths; all is not theirs it seems:
  384. One fatal Tree there stands of Knowledge call'd,
  385. Forbidden them to taste: Knowledge forbidd'n?
  386. Suspicious, reasonless. Why should thir Lord
  387. Envie them that? can it be sin to know,
  388. Can it be death? and do they onely stand
  389. By Ignorance, is that thir happie state,
  390. The proof of thir obedience and thir faith?
  391. O fair foundation laid whereon to build
  392. Thir ruine! Hence I will excite thir minds
  393. With more desire to know, and to reject
  394. Envious commands, invented with designe
  395. To keep them low whom knowledge might exalt
  396. Equal with Gods; aspiring to be such,
  397. They taste and die: what likelier can ensue?
  398. But first with narrow search I must walk round
  399. This Garden, and no corner leave unspi'd;
  400. A chance but chance may lead where I may meet
  401. Some wandring Spirit of Heav'n, by Fountain side,
  402. Or in thick shade retir'd, from him to draw
  403. What further would be learnt. Live while ye may,
  404. Yet happie pair; enjoy, till I return,
  405. Short pleasures, for long woes are to succeed.
  406. So saying, his proud step he scornful turn'd,
  407. But with sly circumspection, and began
  408. Through wood, through waste, o're hill, o're dale his roam.
  409. Mean while in utmost Longitude, where Heav'n
  410. With Earth and Ocean meets, the setting Sun
  411. Slowly descended, and with right aspect
  412. Against the eastern Gate of Paradise
  413. Leveld his eevning Rayes: it was a Rock
  414. Of Alablaster, pil'd up to the Clouds,
  415. Conspicuous farr, winding with one ascent
  416. Accessible from Earth, one entrance high;
  417. The rest was craggie cliff, that overhung
  418. Still as it rose, impossible to climbe.
  419. Betwixt these rockie Pillars Gabriel sat
  420. Chief of th' Angelic Guards, awaiting night;
  421. About him exercis'd Heroic Games
  422. Th' unarmed Youth of Heav'n, but nigh at hand
  423. Celestial Armourie, Shields, Helmes, and Speares
  424. Hung high with Diamond flaming, and with Gold.
  425. Thither came Uriel, gliding through the Eeven
  426. On a Sun beam, swift as a shooting Starr
  427. In Autumn thwarts the night, when vapors fir'd
  428. Impress the Air, and shews the Mariner
  429. From what point of his Compass to beware
  430. Impetuous winds: he thus began in haste.
  431. Gabriel, to thee thy course by Lot hath giv'n
  432. Charge and strict watch that to this happie place
  433. No evil thing approach or enter in;
  434. This day at highth of Noon came to my Spheare
  435. A Spirit, zealous, as he seem'd, to know
  436. More of th' Almighties works, and chiefly Man
  437. Gods latest Image: I describ'd his way
  438. Bent all on speed, and markt his Aerie Gate;
  439. But in the Mount that lies from Eden North,
  440. Where he first lighted, soon discernd his looks
  441. Alien from Heav'n, with passions foul obscur'd:
  442. Mine eye pursu'd him still, but under shade
  443. Lost sight of him; one of the banisht crew
  444. I fear, hath ventur'd from the Deep, to raise
  445. New troubles; him thy care must be to find.
  446. To whom the winged Warriour thus returnd:
  447. Uriel, no wonder if thy perfet sight,
  448. Amid the Suns bright circle where thou sitst,
  449. See farr and wide: in at this Gate none pass
  450. The vigilance here plac't, but such as come
  451. Well known from Heav'n; and since Meridian hour
  452. No Creature thence: if Spirit of other sort,
  453. So minded, have oreleapt these earthie bounds
  454. On purpose, hard thou knowst it to exclude
  455. Spiritual substance with corporeal barr.
  456. But if within the circuit of these walks,
  457. In whatsoever shape he lurk, of whom
  458. Thou tellst, by morrow dawning I shall know.
  459. So promis'd hee, and Uriel to his charge
  460. Returnd on that bright beam, whose point now rais'd
  461. Bore him slope downward to the Sun now fall'n
  462. Beneath th' Azores; whither the prime Orb,
  463. Incredible how swift, had thither rowl'd
  464. Diurnal, or this less volubil Earth
  465. By shorter flight to th' East, had left him there
  466. Arraying with reflected Purple and Gold
  467. The Clouds that on his Western Throne attend:
  468. Now came still Eevning on, and Twilight gray
  469. Had in her sober Liverie all things clad;
  470. Silence accompanied, for Beast and Bird,
  471. They to thir grassie Couch, these to thir Nests
  472. Were slunk, all but the wakeful Nightingale;
  473. She all night long her amorous descant sung;
  474. Silence was pleas'd: now glow'd the Firmament
  475. With living Saphirs: Hesperus that led
  476. The starrie Host, rode brightest, till the Moon
  477. Rising in clouded Majestie, at length
  478. Apparent Queen unvaild her peerless light,
  479. And o're the dark her Silver Mantle threw.
  480. When Adam thus to Eve: Fair Consort, th' hour
  481. Of night, and all things now retir'd to rest
  482. Mind us of like repose, since God hath set
  483. Labour and rest, as day and night to men
  484. Successive, and the timely dew of sleep
  485. Now falling with soft slumbrous weight inclines
  486. Our eye-lids; other Creatures all day long
  487. Rove idle unimploid, and less need rest;
  488. Man hath his daily work of body or mind
  489. Appointed, which declares his Dignitie,
  490. And the regard of Heav'n on all his waies;
  491. While other Animals unactive range,
  492. And of thir doings God takes no account.
  493. To morrow ere fresh Morning streak the East
  494. With first approach of light, we must be ris'n,
  495. And at our pleasant labour, to reform
  496. Yon flourie Arbors, yonder Allies green,
  497. Our walk at noon, with branches overgrown,
  498. That mock our scant manuring, and require
  499. More hands then ours to lop thir wanton growth:
  500. Those Blossoms also, and those dropping Gumms,
  501. That lie bestrowne unsightly and unsmooth,
  502. Ask riddance, if we mean to tread with ease;
  503. Mean while, as Nature wills, Night bids us rest.
  504. To whom thus Eve with perfet beauty adornd.
  505. My Author and Disposer, what thou bidst
  506. Unargu'd I obey; so God ordains,
  507. God is thy Law, thou mine: to know no more
  508. Is womans happiest knowledge and her praise.
  509. With thee conversing I forget all time,
  510. All seasons and thir change, all please alike.
  511. Sweet is the breath of morn, her rising sweet,
  512. With charm of earliest Birds; pleasant the Sun
  513. When first on this delightful Land he spreads
  514. His orient Beams, on herb, tree, fruit, and flour,
  515. Glistring with dew; fragrant the fertil earth
  516. After soft showers; and sweet the coming on
  517. Of grateful Eevning milde, then silent Night
  518. With this her solemn Bird and this fair Moon,
  519. And these the Gemms of Heav'n, her starrie train:
  520. But neither breath of Morn when she ascends
  521. With charm of earliest Birds, nor rising Sun
  522. On this delightful land, nor herb, fruit, floure,
  523. Glistring with dew, nor fragrance after showers,
  524. Nor grateful Eevning mild, nor silent Night
  525. With this her solemn Bird, nor walk by Moon,
  526. Or glittering Starr-light without thee is sweet.
  527. But wherfore all night long shine these, for whom
  528. This glorious sight, when sleep hath shut all eyes?
  529. To whom our general Ancestor repli'd.
  530. Daughter of God and Man, accomplisht Eve,
  531. Those have thir course to finish, round the Earth,
  532. By morrow Eevning, and from Land to Land
  533. In order, though to Nations yet unborn,
  534. Ministring light prepar'd, they set and rise;
  535. Least total darkness should by Night regaine
  536. Her old possession, and extinguish life
  537. In Nature and all things, which these soft fires
  538. Not only enlighten, but with kindly heate
  539. Of various influence foment and warme,
  540. Temper or nourish, or in part shed down
  541. Thir stellar vertue on all kinds that grow
  542. On Earth, made hereby apter to receive
  543. Perfection from the Suns more potent Ray.
  544. These then, though unbeheld in deep of night,
  545. Shine not in vain, nor think, though men were none,
  546. That heav'n would want spectators, God want praise;
  547. Millions of spiritual Creatures walk the Earth
  548. Unseen, both when we wake, and when we sleep:
  549. All these with ceasless praise his works behold
  550. Both day and night: how often from the steep
  551. Of echoing Hill or Thicket have we heard
  552. Celestial voices to the midnight air,
  553. Sole, or responsive each to others note
  554. Singing thir great Creator: oft in bands
  555. While they keep watch, or nightly rounding walk,
  556. With Heav'nly touch of instrumental sounds
  557. In full harmonic number joind, thir songs
  558. Divide the night, and lift our thoughts to Heaven.
  559. Thus talking hand in hand alone they pass'd
  560. On to thir blissful Bower; it was a place
  561. Chos'n by the sovran Planter, when he fram'd
  562. All things to mans delightful use; the roofe
  563. Of thickest covert was inwoven shade
  564. Laurel and Mirtle, and what higher grew
  565. Of firm and fragrant leaf; on either side
  566. Acanthus, and each odorous bushie shrub
  567. Fenc'd up the verdant wall; each beauteous flour,
  568. Iris all hues, Roses, and Gessamin
  569. Rear'd high thir flourisht heads between, and wrought
  570. Mosaic; underfoot the Violet,
  571. Crocus, and Hyacinth with rich inlay
  572. Broiderd the ground, more colour'd then with stone
  573. Of costliest Emblem: other Creature here
  574. Beast, Bird, Insect, or Worm durst enter none;
  575. Such was thir awe of Man. In shadie Bower
  576. More sacred and sequesterd, though but feignd,
  577. Pan or Silvanus never slept, nor Nymph,
  578. Nor Faunus haunted. Here in close recess
  579. With Flowers, Garlands, and sweet-smelling Herbs
  580. Espoused Eve deckt first her Nuptial Bed,
  581. And heav'nlyly Quires the Hymenæan sung,
  582. What day the genial Angel to our Sire
  583. Brought her in naked beauty more adorn'd
  584. More lovely then Pandora, whom the Gods
  585. Endowd with all thir gifts, and O too like
  586. In sad event, when to the unwiser Son
  587. Of Japhet brought by Hermes, she ensnar'd
  588. Mankind with her faire looks, to be aveng'd
  589. On him who had stole Joves authentic fire.
  590. Thus at thir shadie Lodge arriv'd, both stood
  591. Both turnd, and under op'n Skie ador'd
  592. The God that made both Skie, Air, Earth and Heav'n
  593. Which they beheld, the Moons resplendent Globe
  594. And starrie Pole: Thou also mad'st the Night,
  595. Maker Omnipotent, and thou the Day,
  596. Which we in our appointed work imployd
  597. Have finisht happie in our mutual help
  598. And mutual love, the Crown of all our bliss
  599. Ordaind by thee, and this delicious place
  600. For us too large, where thy abundance wants
  601. Partakers, and uncropt falls to the ground.
  602. But thou hast promis'd from us two a Race
  603. To fill the Earth, who shall with us extoll
  604. Thy goodness infinite, both when we wake,
  605. And when we seek, as now, thy gift of sleep.
  606. This said unanimous, and other Rites
  607. Observing none, but adoration pure
  608. Which God likes best, into thir inmost bowre
  609. Handed they went; and eas'd the putting off
  610. These troublesom disguises which wee wear,
  611. Strait side by side were laid, nor turnd I weene
  612. Adam from his fair Spouse, nor Eve the Rites
  613. Mysterious of connubial Love refus'd:
  614. Whatever Hypocrites austerely talk
  615. Of puritie and place and innocence,
  616. Defaming as impure what God declares
  617. Pure, and commands to som, leaves free to all.
  618. Our Maker bids increase, who bids abstain
  619. But our Destroyer, foe to God and Man?
  620. Haile wedded Love, mysterious Law, true source
  621. Of human ofspring, sole propriety,
  622. In Paradise of all things common else.
  623. By thee adulterous lust was driv'n from men
  624. Among the bestial herds to raunge, by thee
  625. Founded in Reason, Loyal, Just, and Pure,
  626. Relations dear, and all the Charities
  627. Of Father, Son, and Brother first were known.
  628. Farr be it, that I should write thee sin or blame,
  629. Or think thee unbefitting holiest place,
  630. Perpetual Fountain of Domestic sweets,
  631. Whose bed is undefil'd and chaste pronounc't,
  632. Present, or past, as Saints and Patriarchs us'd.
  633. Here Love his golden shafts imploies, here lights
  634. His constant Lamp, and waves his purple wings,
  635. Reigns here and revels; not in the bought smile
  636. Of Harlots, loveless, joyless, unindeard,
  637. Casual fruition, nor in Court Amours
  638. Mixt Dance, or wanton Mask, or Midnight Bal,
  639. Or Serenate, which the starv'd Lover sings
  640. To his proud fair, best quitted with disdain.
  641. These lulld by Nightingales imbraceing slept,
  642. And on thir naked limbs the flourie roof
  643. Showrd Roses, which the Morn repair'd. Sleep on
  644. Blest pair; and O yet happiest if ye seek
  645. No happier state, and know to know no more.
  646. Now had night measur'd with her shaddowie Cone
  647. Half way up Hill this vast Sublunar Vault,
  648. And from thir Ivorie Port the Cherubim
  649. Forth issuing at th' accustomd hour stood armd
  650. To thir night watches in warlike Parade,
  651. When Gabriel to his next in power thus spake.
  652. Uzziel, half these draw off, and coast the South
  653. With strictest watch; these other wheel the North,
  654. Our circuit meets full West. As flame they part
  655. Half wheeling to the Shield, half to the Spear.
  656. From these, two strong and suttle Spirits he calld
  657. That neer him stood, and gave them thus in charge.
  658. Ithuriel and Zephon, with wingd speed
  659. Search through this Garden, leave unsearcht no nook,
  660. But chiefly where those two fair Creatures Lodge,
  661. Now laid perhaps asleep secure of harme.
  662. This Eevning from the Sun's decline arriv'd
  663. Who tells of som infernal Spirit seen
  664. Hitherward bent (who could have thought?) escap'd
  665. The barrs of Hell, on errand bad no doubt:
  666. Such where ye find, seise fast, and hither bring.
  667. So saying, on he led his radiant Files,
  668. Daz'ling the Moon; these to the Bower direct
  669. In search of whom they sought: him there they found
  670. Squat like a Toad, close at the eare of Eve;
  671. Assaying by his Devilish art to reach
  672. The Organs of her Fancie, and with them forge
  673. Illusions as he list, Phantasms and Dreams,
  674. Or if, inspiring venom, he might taint
  675. Th' animal spirits that from pure blood arise
  676. Like gentle breaths from Rivers pure, thence raise
  677. At least distemperd, discontented thoughts,
  678. Vaine hopes, vaine aimes, inordinate desires
  679. Blown up with high conceits ingendring pride.
  680. Him thus intent Ithuriel with his Spear
  681. Touch'd lightly; for no falshood can endure
  682. Touch of Celestial temper, but returns
  683. Of force to its own likeness: up he starts
  684. Discoverd and surpriz'd. As when a spark
  685. Lights on a heap of nitrous Powder, laid
  686. Fit for the Tun som Magazin to store
  687. Against a rumord Warr, the Smuttie graine
  688. With sudden blaze diffus'd, inflames the Aire:
  689. So started up in his own shape the Fiend.
  690. Back stept those two fair Angels half amaz'd
  691. So sudden to behold the grieslie King;
  692. Yet thus, unmovd with fear, accost him soon.
  693. Which of those rebell Spirits adjudg'd to Hell
  694. Com'st thou, escap'd thy prison, and transform'd,
  695. Why satst thou like an enemie in waite
  696. Here watching at the head of these that sleep?
  697. Know ye not then said Satan, fill'd with scorn
  698. Know ye not mee? ye knew me once no mate
  699. For you, there sitting where ye durst not soare;
  700. Not to know mee argues your selves unknown,
  701. The lowest of your throng; or if ye know,
  702. Why ask ye, and superfluous begin
  703. Your message, like to end as much in vain?
  704. To whom thus Zephon, answering scorn with scorn.
  705. Think not, revolted Spirit, thy shape the same,
  706. Or undiminisht brightness, to be known
  707. As when thou stoodst in Heav'n upright and pure;
  708. That Glorie then, when thou no more wast good,
  709. Departed from thee, and thou resembl'st now
  710. Thy sin and place of doom obscure and foule.
  711. But come, for thou, be sure, shalt give account
  712. To him who sent us, whose charge is to keep
  713. This place inviolable, and these from harm.
  714. So spake the Cherube, and his grave rebuke
  715. Severe in youthful beautie, added grace
  716. Invincible: abasht the Devil stood,
  717. And felt how awful goodness is, and saw
  718. Vertue in her shape how lovly, saw, and pin'd
  719. His loss; but chiefly to find here observd
  720. His lustre visibly impair'd; yet seemd
  721. Undaunted. If I must contend, said he,
  722. Best with the best, the Sender not the sent,
  723. Or all at once; more glorie will be wonn,
  724. Or less be lost. Thy fear, said Zephon bold,
  725. Will save us trial what the least can doe
  726. Single against thee wicked, and thence weak.
  727. The Fiend repli'd not, overcome with rage;
  728. But like a proud Steed reind, went hautie on,
  729. Chaumping his iron curb: to strive or flie
  730. He held it vain; awe from above had quelld
  731. His heart, not else dismai'd. Now drew they nigh
  732. The western Point, where those half-rounding guards
  733. Just met, and closing stood in squadron joind
  734. Awaiting next command. To whom thir Chief
  735. Gabriel from the Front thus calld aloud.
  736. O friends, I hear the tread of nimble feet
  737. Hasting this way, and now by glimps discerne
  738. Ithuriel and Zephon through the shade,
  739. And with them comes a third of Regal port,
  740. But faded splendor wan; who by his gate
  741. And fierce demeanour seems the Prince of Hell,
  742. Not likely to part hence without contest;
  743. Stand firm, for in his look defiance lours.
  744. He scarce had ended, when those two approachd
  745. And brief related whom they brought, where found,
  746. How busied, in what form and posture coucht.
  747. To whom with stern regard thus Gabriel spake.
  748. Why hast thou, Satan, broke the bounds prescrib'd
  749. To thy transgressions, and disturbd the charge
  750. Of others, who approve not to transgress
  751. By thy example, but have power and right
  752. To question thy bold entrance on this place;
  753. Imploi'd it seems to violate sleep, and those
  754. Whose dwelling God hath planted here in bliss?
  755. To whom thus Satan with contemptuous brow.
  756. Gabriel, thou hadst in Heav'n th' esteem of wise,
  757. And such I held thee; but this question askt
  758. Puts me in doubt. Lives ther who loves his pain?
  759. Who would not, finding way, break loose from Hell,
  760. Though thither doomd? Thou wouldst thyself, no doubt,
  761. And boldly venture to whatever place
  762. Farthest from pain, where thou mightst hope to change
  763. Torment with ease, and; soonest recompence
  764. Dole with delight, which in this place I sought;
  765. To thee no reason; who knowst only good,
  766. But evil hast not tri'd: and wilt object
  767. His will who bound us? let him surer barr
  768. His Iron Gates, if he intends our stay
  769. In that dark durance: thus much what was askt.
  770. The rest is true, they found me where they say;
  771. But that implies not violence or harme.
  772. Thus he in scorn. The warlike Angel mov'd,
  773. Disdainfully half smiling thus repli'd.
  774. O loss of one in Heav'n to judge of wise,
  775. Since Satan fell, whom follie overthrew,
  776. And now returns him from his prison scap't,
  777. Gravely in doubt whether to hold them wise
  778. Or not, who ask what boldness brought him hither
  779. Unlicenc't from his bounds in Hell prescrib'd;
  780. So wise he judges it to fly from pain
  781. However, and to scape his punishment.
  782. So judge thou still, presumptuous, till the wrauth,
  783. Which thou incurr'st by flying, meet thy flight
  784. Seavenfold, and scourge that wisdom back to Hell,
  785. Which taught thee yet no better, that no pain
  786. Can equal anger infinite provok't.
  787. But wherefore thou alone? wherefore with thee
  788. Came not all Hell broke loose? is pain to them
  789. Less pain, less to be fled, or thou then they
  790. Less hardie to endure? courageous Chief,
  791. The first in flight from pain, hadst thou alleg'd
  792. To thy deserted host this cause of flight,
  793. Thou surely hadst not come sole fugitive.
  794. To which the Fiend thus answerd frowning stern.
  795. Not that I less endure, or shrink from pain,
  796. Insulting Angel, well thou knowst I stood
  797. Thy fiercest, when in Battel to thy aide
  798. The blasting volied Thunder made all speed
  799. And seconded thy else not dreaded Spear.
  800. But still thy words at random, as before,
  801. Argue thy inexperience what behooves
  802. From hard assaies and ill successes past
  803. A faithful Leader, not to hazard all
  804. Through wayes of danger by himself untri'd,
  805. I therefore, I alone first undertook
  806. To wing the desolate Abyss, and spie
  807. This new created World, whereof in Hell
  808. Fame is not silent, here in hope to find
  809. Better abode, and my afflicted Powers
  810. To settle here on Earth, or in mid Aire;
  811. Though for possession put to try once more
  812. What thou and thy gay Legions dare against;
  813. Whose easier business were to serve thir Lord
  814. High up in Heav'n, with songs to hymne his Throne,
  815. And practis'd distances to cringe, not fight.
  816. To whom the warriour Angel, soon repli'd.
  817. To say and strait unsay, pretending first
  818. Wise to flie pain, professing next the Spie,
  819. Argues no Leader, but a lyar trac't,
  820. Satan, and couldst thou faithful add? O name,
  821. O sacred name of faithfulness profan'd!
  822. Faithful to whom? to thy rebellious crew?
  823. Armie of Fiends, fit body to fit head;
  824. Was this your discipline and faith ingag'd,
  825. Your military obedience, to dissolve
  826. Allegeance to th' acknowledg'd Power supream?
  827. And thou sly hypocrite, who now wouldst seem
  828. Patron of liberty, who more then thou
  829. Once fawn'd, and cring'd, and servilly ador'd
  830. Heav'ns awful Monarch? wherefore but in hope
  831. To dispossess him, and thy self to reigne?
  832. But mark what I arreede thee now, avant;
  833. Flie thither whence thou fledst: if from this houre
  834. Within these hallowd limits thou appeer,
  835. Back to th' infernal pit I drag thee chaind,
  836. And Seale thee so, as henceforth not to scorne
  837. The facil gates of hell too slightly barrd.
  838. So threatn'd hee, but Satan to no threats
  839. Gave heed, but waxing more in rage repli'd.
  840. Then when I am thy captive talk of chaines,
  841. Proud limitarie Cherube, but ere then
  842. Farr heavier load thy self expect to feel
  843. From my prevailing arme, though Heavens King
  844. Ride on thy wings, and thou with thy Compeers,
  845. Us'd to the yoak, draw'st his triumphant wheels
  846. In progress through the rode of Heav'n Star-pav'd.
  847. While thus he spake, th' Angelic Squadron bright
  848. Turnd fierie red, sharpning in mooned hornes
  849. Thir Phalanx, and began to hemm him round
  850. With ported Spears, as thick as when a field
  851. Of Ceres ripe for harvest waving bends
  852. Her bearded Grove of ears, which way the wind
  853. Swayes them; the careful Plowman doubting stands
  854. Least on the threshing floore his hopeful sheaves
  855. Prove chaff. On th' other side Satan allarm'd
  856. Collecting all his might dilated stood,
  857. Like Teneriff or Atlas unremov'd:
  858. His stature reacht the Skie, and on his Crest
  859. Sat horror Plum'd; nor wanted in his graspe
  860. What seemd both Spear and Shield: now dreadful deeds
  861. Might have ensu'd, nor onely Paradise
  862. In this commotion, but the Starrie Cope
  863. Of Heav'n perhaps, or all the Elements
  864. At least had gon to rack, disturbd and torne
  865. With violence of this conflict, had not soon
  866. Th' Eternal to prevent such horrid fray
  867. Hung forth in Heav'n his golden Scales, yet seen
  868. Betwixt Astrea and the Scorpion signe,
  869. Wherein all things created first he weighd,
  870. The pendulous round Earth with balanc't Aire
  871. In counterpoise, now ponders all events,
  872. Battels and Realms: in these he put two weights
  873. The sequel each of parting and of fight;
  874. The latter quick up flew, and kickt the beam;
  875. Which Gabriel spying, thus bespake the Fiend.
  876. Satan, I know thy strength, and thou know'st mine,
  877. Neither our own but giv'n; what follie then
  878. To boast what Arms can doe, since thine no more
  879. Then Heav'n permits, nor mine, though doubld now
  880. To trample thee as mire: for proof look up,
  881. And read thy Lot in yon celestial Sign
  882. Where thou art weigh'd, and shown how light, how weak,
  883. If thou resist. The Fiend lookt up and knew
  884. His mounted scale aloft: nor more; but fled
  885. Murmuring, and with him fled the shades of night.

  1. And what made the multitudes agree with me and join me in battling him and shaking up his kingdom--that hasn't changed. 
  2. So what if we lost some ground? He'll never be able to take away my free will, my revenge, my hate, or my courage never to give up. 
  3. And if I still have all that, what did he win? 
  4. Am I supposed to kneel and beg for mercy from him who I just gave some serious worry about the safety of his empire? 
  5. That would be worse shame than the defeat we just had. 
  6. We can't die, and we can't be physically hurt, but we have learned a lot from this experience. 
  7. Whether we do it by outright battle or some more devious way, we can fight our enemy forever--that tyrant in Heaven who sits there now, gloating over his victory. 
  8.  Satan said these words forcefully though he was in pain and despair. 
  9. Beelzebub respondedOh Prince, you bravely led the rebelling angels against Heaven's king. 
  10. But he defeated us, whether by his greater strength or just good luck, I don't know. 
  11. Now, too late, I see only too well the sad outcome of our plan--the loss of Heaven, and all our comrades left in such sad shape. 
  12. But we are like gods and can't die. Our minds and spirits are indestructible, and soon our strength will return, although our glory and joy are gone forever. 
  13. Now I think our Conqueror must really be almighty. How else could he defeat an army like ours? 
  14. But what if he left us alive just to make us suffer? 
  15. Or maybe he wants to make us his slaves to do whatever strange things he thinks up for us to do in this dark pit.